On fune 22, 2002, Mukhtaran Mai was brutally gang-raped on orders of a local tribal council. The council, or panchayat, had decided upon this ruling as punishment for allegations of inappropriate conduci with an upper-caste girl leveled against Ms. Mukhtaran ‘s 15 -year-old brother. The details of the appalling crime are indeed startling, but what has further garnered the world’s attention is the tremendous courage of Mukhtaran Mai. Instead of quietly submitting to the panchayat’ s verdict, Mukhtaran Mai decided to stand up against her perpetrators by waging a legal ha 11 Ie which has now reached the highest levels of the Pakistani court system. Recently, while on a trip to the United States to receive the “Woman of the Year” award from Glamour Magazine, Mukhtaran Mai spoke in Chicago about here efforts Io raise awareness of abuse against women. .Surprisingly shy and soft-sfoken, Iter strength and feminine dignity show through clearly as she discusses her efforts to help women in Pakistan.

ISLAMICA | What happened to you was indeed appalling and disturbing, and you mentioned that initially after the event you went through a period of deep depression. What was it that gave you the strength to move beyond this initial stage?

MUKHTARANMAI | The support of so many people like yourself and of course the strength I received from God.

ISLAMICA | Initially there weren’t so many people supporting you . . .Who/ what was there for you in those days?

MUKHTARAN MAI | God was there for me. He’s always been there for me.

ISLAMICA | It seems in many cultures the woman herself gets blamed for the crimes that are committed against her. How did your family and your fellow villagers treat you after the incident occurred?

MUKHTARANMAI | [Initially|only my parents were with me, no one else was with me. The others were afraid. They would think “we’re poor, and maybe if we stand up the tribal lords will abuse us in the same way.” In their hearts these people were with us, but they were scared to show this.

ISLAMICA | Could you please talk about your parents and others who gave you support, like the local imam? Usually (given the cases of karo kari and things you hear in Pakistan), it seems women do not usually receive such support.

MUKHTARAN MAI | Of course they were all with me. Everyone knew what had happened to me, and they knew it wasn’t my fault.

ISLAMICA | Could you tell me a little more about the local imam? We hear a lot in the press that Islam and the ulama are oppressive to women. What are your thoughts on this?

MUKHTARAN MAI | Where does it say [in the religious texts] that Islam supports violence against women? The local imam supported me starting from my home [before any of the court cases had begun] all the way to the courts, and he spoke against the incident and what happened in his sermons. He was a continuous source of support.

ISLAMICA | It seems that, especially at first, the Pakistani government was not really interested in dealing with your case. Could you talk a little about this please? How does the Pakistani government fare when it comes to dealing with such issues as abuse or violence against women?

MUKHTARAN MAI | When the international media picked up my case, that’s when the police and government got involved. They never pay attention when such things happen to poor people anyhow.

ISLAMICA | Is this always how women are dealt with?

MUKHTARAN MAI | How can a poor woman get any justice? I have the whole world behind me, so I have much support. But many women don’t have such resources at all. Many women kill themselves after such incidents. Their family thinks “Well, at least we won’t have to worry about this now.”

ISLAMICA I Didn’t you also consider suicide?

MUKHTARAN MAI | Yes, I did. But eventually, I realized that I should stand up for justice. I figured, if I am going to die anyhow [because of suicide], might as well die trying to fight for the Truth.

ISLAMICA | I remember in one interview you gave, you mentioned that at first you had consoled yourself with the fact that the men who did this to you were ignorant, and that somehow because of this it was perhaps understandable. But once you started being turned away by the courts, you began thinking that even the educated do not care about what happened to you, and you started losing faith in education itself. What are your thoughts about this now?

MUKHTARAN MAI | It’s not that I thought badly of education itself”. But yes, I had initially told myself, these people did what they did because they are jakil (ignorant ). Hut after going to the courts, and the High Court gave the decision that it did, then I wondered about how even the educated could ileal with me in this w ay. It even these people do not mete out justice, then where can we turn?
ISLAMICA I What eventually happened with your court case?

MUKHTARAN MAI | Right now the case is being considered b the Supreme Court The Special Court (“khususi” court) had given six of them a death sentence. Then the I ligh Court upon appeal reversed the sentences tor five of them, freeing them completely, and one of them n as gi en a life sentence. So now the case lias been petitioned in the Supreme Court, and we’ll see how they w ill deal with the decision of the High Court.

ISLAMICA | And that initial ruling of the khususi court, had that been given before all the media’s reporting of the story, or was it after?

MUKHTARAN MAI | No, no this was given after the media had already publicized the case. The case had reached the media as soon as it had been filed with the police. In fact, many Pakistanis only found out about the case when BBC and CNN had broadcast it. Many local papers found out when it had been featured by them.

ISLAMICA | You used the money you received with the initial court settlement to establish a school in your village. Could you tell me about this school? What do you teach there? Why did you choose to found a school with this money? Is it only for girls? Is there such a school for boys in your village?

MUKHTARAN MAI | We have five teachers in the girls’ school and one in the boys’ school. We teach math, science, Urdu, English, Islamic Studies, and Social Studies in the girls’ school. We teach Qur’an. We fund and support the girls’ school. The government runs the boys’ school. There’s only one teacher in the boys’ school, and they have very limited supplies. The teacher there often comes to us in the girls’ school to ask for coloring books, supplies.

ISLAMICA | It is really excellent that you have taken on the task of educating others about the abuses that occur against women. Some people in Pakistan however do not like the fact that you are here in the U.S. on this speaking tour. They feel that you are “airing Pakistan’s dirty laundry in public” by doing this, and that you somehow are being disloyal as a Pakistani. What do you have to say in response to such sentiment?

MUKHTARANMAI | The people who say this, I sa to them that such bad things do not remain hidden. It’s not that we have come outside [of Pakistan] to publicize our faults. We [as Pakistanis] shouldn’t be concerned about whether others find out about our faults. Our concern should be to end the bad things in the first place, to wash the “dirty laundry.” We should want to end these injustices, and all women are calling for the same thing, that such injustices be stopped.

ISLAMICA | Could you please comment on the infamous quote of General Musharraf concerning rape when discussing your case with the Washington Post? (“This has become a moneymaking concern. A lot of people say if you want to go abroad and get a visa for Canada or citizenship and be a millionaire, get yourself raped.”)

MUKHTARAN MAI | It’s so strange that General Sahib, being the leader of Pakistan, would say something like this against a woman. And he didn’t just say it against one woman, but against so many women. A poor woman has only her honor. W h) would she ever jeopardize it.:

ISLAMICA | Do you feel that your trip to America, and your participation in such events, will have any benefit, either here or in Pakistan?

MUKHTARAN MAI | From doing these things, I gel emotional support from seeing everyone with mein this cause, I get strength to continue and do good work.

ISLAMICA I What do you think we as Americans can do to put pressure on the Pakistani government to bring about the types of reforms you desire?

MUKHTARAN MAI | You as Americans can put pressure on our government to bring about the desired reforms.

ISLAMICA | And what can Pakistanis themselves do?

MUKHTARAN MAI | It’s obvious that e en our own people in Pakistan can put an end to unjust and fcudalistic practices, but that can only be if people lake ? he side of the oppressed. Unfortunatel] instead, what oftentimes happens in Pakistan is that people gi e support to the tribal leaders. Instead of gft ing them support, support should be given to the oppressed.

ISLAMICA | Mukhtaran Bibi, because of the strength you have displayed, do you feel you have given courage to others?

MUKHTARANMAI | Many women come to me now. Not just because of rape, but also for other reasons such as domestic violence, or their husbands have kicked them out of their homes. Sometimes I can help them with their problems, sometimes I can’t.

ISLAMICA | The “punishment” that had been given to you was meted out by an illegal panchayat set up by the tribal lords. What can we do as individuals to get rid of tribalism/feudalism, especially since it infects every strata of Pakistani society, up through the highest ranks of government?

MUKHTARAN MAI | Well, I can only tell you about Meerwala. For the last three years, there has been no panchayat in Meerwala. Now, people go to the police when they have an issue. And when there are domestic disputes, [Mukhtaran Bibi smiles] the women tell t heir husbands “Fm going to Mukhtaran Bibi!”

ISLAMICA | So tribalism will end because of Mukhtaran Bibi?

MUKHTARAN MAI | It will not end because of me, but it will end if these girls and boys who are getting an education (in the schools we’ve set up), will grow up to be people who will act with more sensitivity.

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    A piece previously published in the print issue of Islamica Magazine between 2003-2009. The following has been an effort to digitize and archive as a free service. Author citations can be found at as we continue to work on improving the digital archives here.

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